• The Dutch Reformation Media Resource by

    The success or failure of the Reformation in a particular region often depended on whether the ruler of the region supported or opposed it. However, the Dutch Reformation was an exception to this tendency. Though bitterly opposed by the Habsburg monarchs, Protestantism attracted a large following in the Low Countries. As religious and political tension led to upheaval and war, the courage and persistence of the Dutch people prepared the way for a free Dutch Republic and the rise of the Dutch Reformed Church. View Resource

  • The Scottish Reformation Media Resource by

    As the teachings of the Protestant Reformation spread throughout Europe, Protestant movements appeared in many different countries. In some areas, the political authorities quickly established Protestantism as the official religion. In nations like France and Spain, the Reformation was eventually suppressed by relentless persecution. However, persecution was not always able to extinguish the Protestant cause. In the case of Scotland, the Reformation took root in spite of government opposition, largely through the diligent and persistent ministry of John Knox. View Resource

  • The Catholic Reformation Media Resource by

    Many who desired to reform the Roman Catholic Church eventually split off from it. However, energetic reforms also emerged within the Catholic Church, addressing moral and spiritual problems without forming a separate ecclesiastical body. While the Catholic reformers shared many of the same concerns as the Protestant reformers, their vision of ecclesiastical renewal ultimately took the Catholic Church in a very different direction than that taken by the Protestant churches. View Resource

  • The Theology of John Calvin Media Resource by

    It is common to think of John Calvin primarily in terms of his intellectual accomplishments, perhaps regarding him as little more than a brain working in Geneva. However, a closer look at Calvin’s theology reveals that his scholarly activity was driven by a deeply pastoral desire to strengthen believers in their faith. In this message, Dr. Godfrey explores some of the focal points of Calvin’s theology, taking note of how Calvin differed from his Roman Catholic contemporaries and why these differences matter. View Resource

  • John Calvin & Geneva Media Resource by

    God excels at overturning human expectations. When John Calvin left Geneva in 1538, he assumed that he would not be back. Content to study and minister in relative obscurity in Strasbourg, Calvin was unwittingly being equipped to return to Geneva and carry on the task of Reformation that he and William Farel had begun there. During the years ahead, John Calvin would leave a permanent mark upon both this city and the Reformed branch of Christianity. View Resource

  • From the German Reformation to Geneva Media Resource by

    Perhaps there is no greater testimony to the enduring nature of Luther’s reforms than the fact that the Reformation continued to gather strength after his death. As Lutheranism took firm root in Germany, other areas in Europe also became centers of vigorous reform. Not least of these was the Swiss city of Geneva, where the Reformed branch of Protestantism took shape under the persistent labors of William Farel and John Calvin. View Resource

  • Martin Luther & the Anabaptists Media Resource by

    Western Christianity changed forever during Martin Luther’s lifetime. Profoundly gifted and profoundly flawed, Luther had an enduring desire to proclaim “Jesus Christ and him crucified.” As a result of Luther’s untiring efforts, Christian leaders across Europe sought to bring all of life into accordance with God’s Word, often achieving very different results. Of the many expressions of Christianity that emerged during this time, the Anabaptists puzzled and distressed Catholics and Protestants alike. In this message, Dr. Godfrey discusses the enduring legacies of both Martin Luther and the Anabaptist movement. View Resource

  • Martin Luther & the Growing Protestant Movement Media Resource by

    In response to Martin Luther’s tireless ministry, more Christians came to recognize the need to reform the church, and reform movements began to spring up throughout Europe. As Luther continued to serve as a primary preacher and spokesman of the Reformation, he faced the question of how to interact with those whose visions of reform differed from his own. When the early Protestant leaders weighed the possibility of uniting their efforts, they grappled with challenges that still confront Christians today. View Resource

  • Martin Luther & the German Reformation Media Resource by

    It is often through trial and adversity that God shapes His people the most. After publishing what he thought to be an unremarkable critique of corruption in the sale of indulgences, Martin Luther found himself at the forefront of a controversy that he neither expected nor desired. In the years that followed, Luther repeatedly returned to Scripture for guidance and instruction, and his exposition of God’s Word soon put him at odds with both the political and religious elites of his day. View Resource

  • Martin Luther’s Early Life Media Resource by

    Extraordinary events often begin with seemingly ordinary people. A promising son of a typical middle-class family at the turn of the sixteenth century, Martin Luther had no other ambition than to know God’s Word. As Martin applied himself to that pursuit, God was equipping and preparing this young monk for an astonishing future. In this message, Dr. Godfrey explores the circumstances leading up to the events of 1517 that forever shaped the trajectories of Martin Luther’s life and of the Christian church. View Resource

  • Introduction to the Reformation Media Resource by

    As the year 1500 arrived, Europe was in the midst of profound changes. The conditions, attitudes, and institutions that had characterized the Middle Ages were gradually giving way to new movements and developments. The discovery of unknown lands across the Atlantic accompanied an explosion of exploration and trade. The emergence of powerful monarchies in Germany, France, and Spain introduced complex new dynamics to European politics. In the aftermath of the Renaissance, interest in learning and the study of ancient texts ran high, and the recent invention of Gutenberg’s printing press facilitated the spread of ideas at an unprecedented rate. Amid … View Resource

  • Forerunners of the Reformation Media Resource by

    As the church continued to consolidate its power and define its beliefs, it did not always act and speak with one voice. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, certain churchmen began to speak out against the corrupt practices and unbiblical doctrines that had become increasingly common within the medieval church. Emphasizing the authority of the Bible and a life of genuine piety, these leaders quickly gained a large following among the spiritually hungry common people. Though these reform movements were fiercely opposed by the church, they helped to lay the groundwork for profound spiritual changes that would come in later … View Resource

  • Great Scholastics Media Resource by

    The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries represented an era of significant change in the Medieval world. In the East, these centuries witnessed the final decline and collapse of the Byzantine Empire. Meanwhile, institutions in the West continued to develop and flourish. While European monarchs labored to build up their power and prestige, the pope continued to increase his authority over the church. At the same time, an influx of new ideas had ushered in a season of considerable academic achievement. As Europe began to establish its first universities, talented Scholastics appeared who dramatically shaped the trajectory of Christian thought. View Resource

  • Mysticism & the Renaissance Media Resource by

    As the Middle Ages continued to wind down in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a diverse array of movements continued to exercise influence inside and outside the church. Amidst the backdrop of great Scholastic thinkers, other leaders appeared, advocating a vision of the Christian life that was driven more by the heart than by the head. Others responded to Scholasticism by looking to the ancient writings of Greece and Rome for inspiration. As Western scholars became increasingly proficient in classical languages and ancient texts, Christians inherited a variety of tools and resources to help them better understand the church, the … View Resource

  • Popes & Councils Media Resource by

    As the Middle Ages progressed, certain issues remained unresolved. Second to none in terms of its importance to the medieval church was the question of the pope’s authority. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the papal office faced unique challenges from secular authorities, from rival popes, and from clergy who sought to consolidate the church’s power within ecumenical councils. As different popes succumbed to and overcame these challenges, the papacy found itself sometimes losing ground, sometimes gaining ground, and always adapting to new realities within the church and society. View Resource