Those alive when the twentieth century began lived in a world that had been and still was experiencing unprecedented change. Longstanding empires had fallen. Others were reaching the height of their power as colonialism was at its peak. The wars caused by all of these events seemed never-ending. Additionally, the Second Industrial Revolution was creating massive social and economic changes as people fled the farms and filled the cities. Philosophically, the academy was still coming to grips with the questions of authority associated with the rise of modernity. Little did anyone then know, however, that the changes they had already witnessed would be almost nothing compared to what the twentieth century would bring.