• The Chalcedonian Solution

    Acts 20:28

    Who upholds the cosmos? Christ, according to His divine nature, because deity sustains the creation. Who died and rose again? Christ, according to His human nature, because only humanity can die and be restored to life. We distinguish Christ’s two ...Read More

  • Cyril and Nestorius

    Luke 1:41–43

    It is vital for us to affirm that the divine nature is not capable of change. If God, as God, can change, then we cannot rely on His Word or on His promises. Thus, the incarnate Son of God, Jesus ...Read More

  • Trinitarian Heresies

    Titus 2:1

    The church rejected modalism and Arianism centuries ago, but that has not stopped these ideas from recurring from time to time. Unitarians and some Pentecostals affirm a form of modalism. The Jehovah’s Witnesses are modern-day Arians. Even many people in ...Read More

  • Athanasius’ Defense of the Incarnation

    <p>John 10:30</p>

    Old heresies rarely die. Instead, they get repackaged and republished. Today, sects such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses promote views that are almost identical to the views of the ancient Arians. It is therefore incumbent upon us to know the truth ...Read More

  • Are We Born Free

    1 Corinthians 15:22

    Few would claim the mantle of Pelagius today, but it is a common belief that God’s commands imply our ability to obey. Thus, many people overestimate the degree to which they have kept God’s law. We must have a strong, ...Read More

  • The Trinity and Atonement

    Hebrews 9:13–14

    Touching His divine nature, it was impossible for Christ to die. Touching His human nature, Christ could and did die. Christ could atone for our sin because He was truly man, but He was offered up for our salvation by ...Read More

  • Divine Diversity

    Psalm 110:1

    If God is an impersonal force, then we should pay Him little attention. We cannot know or relate to Him, and an impersonal being cannot be concerned with the affairs of human beings. But if God is a personal being, ...Read More

  • Athanasius Against the World

    John 15:18

    Standing for the truth of God’s Word is often costly, as we have seen in the cases of Justin Martyr and Athanasius. However, if we have counted the cost, we will be prepared to pay the price when and if ...Read More

  • Defenders of the Faith

    1 Peter 3:15

    Irenaeus’ confrontation of the Gnostic heresy reminds us that Christianity is a public religion. God revealed Himself in Christ to many people and not just to a select few, and there is no secret oral tradition that has been handed ...Read More

  • Arianism

    John 1:1–18

    Arius’ teaching — Arianism — is alive today in cults such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses. It may also be held unwittingly by Christians who have not received good teaching and believe, implicitly, that the Father is a “higher” God than ...Read More

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