• The Enlightenment (Part 2) by

    During the Enlightenment, many minds were at work to rid society of religion. One way was to disregard Scripture and use only what is observed in nature and deduced by reason as the means of understanding our place in this …

  • Nietzsche by

    Where do you find your meaning? If you are a Christian, then you know it comes from God. Yet many people believe that meaning and purpose do not come from God. So what is their answer to life’s deepest …

  • Russell by

    You don’t need to be master logician to feel the weight of the question, if everything must have a cause, then what caused God, and what caused the cause that caused God? Before we go too far, we need …

  • Kant (Part 1) by

    Where is the beginning of knowledge? What must be in order for knowledge to be? Most of us don’t ponder questions like these, but philosophers like Immanuel Kant did. In the eighteenth century, he challenged the classical arguments for …

  • Hume (Part 1) by

    It has happened countless times in your life. You woke up and the grass was wet from the rain the night before, or so you thought. How do know the rain caused the wetness on the grass? Perhaps it is …

  • The Enlightenment (Part 1) by

    Kingdoms rise and fall. This fact of life has been proven again and again throughout world history. If we could only learn from history, perhaps we can finally find a way to sustain a perfect government that will usher in …

  • Hume (Part 2) by

    Philosopher David Hume has caused many to rethink the law of causality. In essence, he concluded that we cannot really know the true causes of the effects we perceive in our world. So what effect does his conclusion have in …

  • Berkeley and Empiricism by

    If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one there to hear it, does it still make a sound? You’ve probably heard that question before and you just might have passed it off as just another …

  • Crisis in the 18th Century (Part 1) by

    How do you know what is real? If you are relying on your five senses to supply you with answer, remember, there are many things in this world that cannot be seen, heard, or tasted. Yet even if you could …

  • Locke by

    If you were to catalogue every piece of knowledge that is stored in your mind, you would realize that you know more than you know. But how did all that knowledge get there? Was it by heavy contemplation of things …

  • Crisis in the 18th Century (Part 2) by

    What is the color of anything when the lights are out? As we try to understand the material world around us, how much can we rely on our senses? Questions like these occupied the minds of eighteenth century empiricists as …

  • Descartes by

    With all the opposing ideas in the world, how do you know which ones are right? How do know your thoughts are any closer to the truth than someone else’s? Are you sure you thought your thoughts through with …

  • Descartes and “Cause and Effect” by

    Many times a day, we think about doing things without actually doing those things. Then we have thoughts that manifest themselves in action. The question before us is how does thought translate into action? What is that connection between thought …

  • Leibniz by

    If God is perfect, how can His handiwork be so imperfect? How can a good God create a world with evil in it? These questions are not at all new in the world of philosophy. Many have tried to reconcile …

  • Aquinas (Part 1) by

    You can’t read about human DNA in the Bible and you can’t study God’s plan of redemption under a microscope. Does that mean science and faith contradict each other? Are there two different kinds of truth in …