• Gregory, Missions & Islam by

    Around 600, as Gregory I labored in Rome for the growth and development of Christianity in Western Europe, an Arabian trader named Muhammad began to wrestle with religious questions and arrive at answers that were very different from the teachings …

  • Ignorance Is Not Bliss by

    The apostle Paul knew his opponents’ views better than they did and never argued from a position of ignorance. In order to regain our Christian mind, we too must once again engage the world in a fully-informed way. In this …

  • Innocent III by

    So far we have studied several notable events and movements that took place in the high Middle Ages. In addition to being an era of significant social, political, and cultural developments, this era also marked an important chapter in the …

  • Introduction by

    This study will examine the first 500 years of the church in order to illuminate the impact of the early church so that the church today might know itself and its God better. This particular study lays the historical context …

  • Introduction to the Middle Ages by

    Our word “medieval” comes from the Latin terms medium and aevum, which mean “middle age.” Neglected by some and romanticized by others, the period of the Middle Ages is important for understanding the triumphs and struggles of Christians in Europe …

  • Introduction to the Reformation by

    As the year 1500 arrived, Europe was in the midst of profound changes. The conditions, attitudes, and institutions that had characterized the Middle Ages were gradually giving way to new movements and developments. The discovery of unknown lands across the …

  • Jesus as God by

    The fourth century witnessed some of the most critical Christological controversies in the history of the church. Despite the solid, Biblical determination that originated from these debates, heresies continued to abound about the person and nature of Jesus Christ, and …

  • Jesus as Man by

    As members of the Reformed faith, it is easy to slip into a position of arrogance and superiority on account of our rich tradition of learning and study. Sadly, as today’s lesson demonstrates through the example of Cyril and …

  • John Calvin & Geneva by

    God excels at overturning human expectations. When John Calvin left Geneva in 1538, he assumed that he would not be back. Content to study and minister in relative obscurity in Strasbourg, Calvin was unwittingly being equipped to return to Geneva …

  • Justinian & Gregory by

    Emperor Justinian I and Pope Gregory I stand out as two of the most significant figures in the centuries of transition that marked the early Middle Ages. As the vestiges of Roman culture and institutions continued to fade or be …

  • Martin Luther’s Early Life by

    Extraordinary events often begin with seemingly ordinary people. A promising son of a typical middle-class family at the turn of the sixteenth century, Martin Luther had no other ambition than to know God’s Word. As Martin applied himself to …

  • Martin Luther & the Anabaptists by

    Western Christianity changed forever during Martin Luther’s lifetime. Profoundly gifted and profoundly flawed, Luther had an enduring desire to proclaim “Jesus Christ and him crucified.” As a result of Luther’s untiring efforts, Christian leaders across Europe sought to …

  • Martin Luther & the German Reformation by

    It is often through trial and adversity that God shapes His people the most. After publishing what he thought to be an unremarkable critique of corruption in the sale of indulgences, Martin Luther found himself at the forefront of a …

  • Martin Luther & the Growing Protestant Movement by

    In response to Martin Luther’s tireless ministry, more Christians came to recognize the need to reform the church, and reform movements began to spring up throughout Europe. As Luther continued to serve as a primary preacher and spokesman of …

  • Monasticism & Scholasticism by

    For nearly two millennia, many Christians have chosen to express their piety through ascetic living. Though the roots of monasticism existed long before, the sixth-century monk Benedict of Nursia is considered to be the founding father of the medieval monastic …