• His Big Idea by

    Jonathan Edwards is often portrayed as a disgruntled, unhappy figure concerned only about judgment and doom. With titles for his works such as Original Sin and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” what more should we expect? As …

  • His Early Life by

    Human beings tend to romanticize and idealize the lives of those individuals we admire, particularly those that lived in an era far removed from ourselves. We smooth out a wrinkle here, turn a blind eye to an episode there, and …

  • His Early Life by

    Human beings tend to romanticize and idealize the lives of those individuals we admire, particularly those that lived in an era far removed from ourselves. We smooth out a wrinkle here, turn a blind eye to an episode there, and …

  • Indulgence Controversy by

    Theological disputation occurs frequently within the confines of the church. At times, differences among brothers and sisters in Christ lead to divisive splits and even animosity, which generally burgeons on account of poor behavior and a less than gentle spirit …

  • Indulgence Controversy by

    Theological disputation occurs frequently within the confines of the church. At times, differences among brothers and sisters in Christ lead to divisive splits and even animosity, which generally burgeons on account of poor behavior and a less than gentle spirit …

  • Innocent III by

    So far we have studied several notable events and movements that took place in the high Middle Ages. In addition to being an era of significant social, political, and cultural developments, this era also marked an important chapter in the …

  • Innocent III by

    So far we have studied several notable events and movements that took place in the high Middle Ages. In addition to being an era of significant social, political, and cultural developments, this era also marked an important chapter in the …

  • Introduction to the Middle Ages by

    Our word “medieval” comes from the Latin terms medium and aevum, which mean “middle age.” Neglected by some and romanticized by others, the period of the Middle Ages is important for understanding the triumphs and struggles of Christians in Europe …

  • Introduction to the Middle Ages by

    Our word “medieval” comes from the Latin terms medium and aevum, which mean “middle age.” Neglected by some and romanticized by others, the period of the Middle Ages is important for understanding the triumphs and struggles of Christians in Europe …

  • Introduction to the Reformation by

    As the year 1500 arrived, Europe was in the midst of profound changes. The conditions, attitudes, and institutions that had characterized the Middle Ages were gradually giving way to new movements and developments. The discovery of unknown lands across the …

  • Introduction to the Reformation by

    As the year 1500 arrived, Europe was in the midst of profound changes. The conditions, attitudes, and institutions that had characterized the Middle Ages were gradually giving way to new movements and developments. The discovery of unknown lands across the …

  • John Calvin & Geneva by

    God excels at overturning human expectations. When John Calvin left Geneva in 1538, he assumed that he would not be back. Content to study and minister in relative obscurity in Strasbourg, Calvin was unwittingly being equipped to return to Geneva …

  • John Calvin & Geneva by

    God excels at overturning human expectations. When John Calvin left Geneva in 1538, he assumed that he would not be back. Content to study and minister in relative obscurity in Strasbourg, Calvin was unwittingly being equipped to return to Geneva …

  • Justinian & Gregory by

    Emperor Justinian I and Pope Gregory I stand out as two of the most significant figures in the centuries of transition that marked the early Middle Ages. As the vestiges of Roman culture and institutions continued to fade or be …

  • Justinian & Gregory by

    Emperor Justinian I and Pope Gregory I stand out as two of the most significant figures in the centuries of transition that marked the early Middle Ages. As the vestiges of Roman culture and institutions continued to fade or be …