• Popes & Councils by

    As the Middle Ages progressed, certain issues remained unresolved. Second to none in terms of its importance to the medieval church was the question of the pope’s authority. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the papal office faced unique …

  • Theologians by

    Medieval Scholasticism is often seen today as being speculative and of little practical value. In some cases, this critique may be warranted. However, this movement nevertheless helped to create an environment of thoughtful reflection and study that nurtured some of …

  • Church Power and Dissent by

    As the Middle Ages progressed, the Roman Catholic Church became one of the most powerful institutions in Western Europe. People responded to the church’s growing influence in a number of ways. Many supported the church, considering it to be …

  • Innocent III by

    So far we have studied several notable events and movements that took place in the high Middle Ages. In addition to being an era of significant social, political, and cultural developments, this era also marked an important chapter in the …

  • Monasticism & Scholasticism by

    For nearly two millennia, many Christians have chosen to express their piety through ascetic living. Though the roots of monasticism existed long before, the sixth-century monk Benedict of Nursia is considered to be the founding father of the medieval monastic …

  • The Crusades by

    Few incidents in the history of the church are as controversial as the Crusades. The tragic loss of life that resulted from this movement has, sadly, discredited the Christian faith in the eyes of many. Today, Christians are sometimes uncertain …

  • Gregory, Missions & Islam by

    Around 600, as Gregory I labored in Rome for the growth and development of Christianity in Western Europe, an Arabian trader named Muhammad began to wrestle with religious questions and arrive at answers that were very different from the teachings …

  • Introduction to the Middle Ages by

    Our word “medieval” comes from the Latin terms medium and aevum, which mean “middle age.” Neglected by some and romanticized by others, the period of the Middle Ages is important for understanding the triumphs and struggles of Christians in Europe …

  • Justinian & Gregory by

    Emperor Justinian I and Pope Gregory I stand out as two of the most significant figures in the centuries of transition that marked the early Middle Ages. As the vestiges of Roman culture and institutions continued to fade or be …

  • Paths to God: Theologies by

    The early centuries of church history stand out as a time of striking unity. It is unrealistic to look upon this time as a golden age of Christianity due to the many challenges it faced from both within and without …

  • A Minister of the Gospel by

    At a young age—no later than nineteen—Jonathan Edwards sat down to write his resolutions. He would eventually produce seventy resolutions, a large number, to be sure. Yet, the penning of resolutions was not anomalous in Edwards’ era. Benjamin …

  • His Big Idea by

    Jonathan Edwards is often portrayed as a disgruntled, unhappy figure concerned only about judgment and doom. With titles for his works such as Original Sin and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” what more should we expect? As …

  • The Conflict at Northampton by

    Jonathan Edwards was no stranger to controversy. Although admired and cherished around the globe for his preaching and contribution to the Great Awakening, his own congregation in Northampton, Massachusetts, opposed and removed him from the pulpit unjustly. Many men would …

  • The Great Awakening by

    The Puritans are encumbered by a caricature of strictness and dourness in our day and age. Their mention calls forth images of judgment, wrath, and superstition, and almost without doubt people look to Jonathan Edwards’ sermon “Sinners in the Hands …

  • The Missionary by

    Jonathan Edwards died at the age of fifty-five. Although not young, relative to our era it seems premature. What might his mind have produced if he possessed even a few more years on this earth? Edwards would probably have never …