• A Minister of the Gospel by

    At a young age—no later than nineteen—Jonathan Edwards sat down to write his resolutions. He would eventually produce seventy resolutions, a large number, to be sure. Yet, the penning of resolutions was not anomalous in Edwards’ era. Benjamin …

  • Building St. Peters by

    Sadly, the church, composed of sinful men and women, does not escape the infiltration of depravity, but it frequently suffers greatly from it. Corruption among officials, particularly high-ranking leaders, has serious ramifications both within and without the church’s borders …

  • Church Power and Dissent by

    As the Middle Ages progressed, the Roman Catholic Church became one of the most powerful institutions in Western Europe. People responded to the church’s growing influence in a number of ways. Many supported the church, considering it to be …

  • Forerunners of the Reformation by

    As the church continued to consolidate its power and define its beliefs, it did not always act and speak with one voice. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, certain churchmen began to speak out against the corrupt practices and unbiblical …

  • From the German Reformation to Geneva by

    Perhaps there is no greater testimony to the enduring nature of Luther’s reforms than the fact that the Reformation continued to gather strength after his death. As Lutheranism took firm root in Germany, other areas in Europe also became …

  • Great Scholastics by

    The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries represented an era of significant change in the Medieval world. In the East, these centuries witnessed the final decline and collapse of the Byzantine Empire. Meanwhile, institutions in the West continued to develop and flourish …

  • Gregory, Missions & Islam by

    Around 600, as Gregory I labored in Rome for the growth and development of Christianity in Western Europe, an Arabian trader named Muhammad began to wrestle with religious questions and arrive at answers that were very different from the teachings …

  • His Big Idea by

    Jonathan Edwards is often portrayed as a disgruntled, unhappy figure concerned only about judgment and doom. With titles for his works such as Original Sin and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” what more should we expect? As …

  • His Early Life by

    Human beings tend to romanticize and idealize the lives of those individuals we admire, particularly those that lived in an era far removed from ourselves. We smooth out a wrinkle here, turn a blind eye to an episode there, and …

  • Indulgence Controversy by

    Theological disputation occurs frequently within the confines of the church. At times, differences among brothers and sisters in Christ lead to divisive splits and even animosity, which generally burgeons on account of poor behavior and a less than gentle spirit …

  • Innocent III by

    So far we have studied several notable events and movements that took place in the high Middle Ages. In addition to being an era of significant social, political, and cultural developments, this era also marked an important chapter in the …

  • Introduction to the Middle Ages by

    Our word “medieval” comes from the Latin terms medium and aevum, which mean “middle age.” Neglected by some and romanticized by others, the period of the Middle Ages is important for understanding the triumphs and struggles of Christians in Europe …

  • Introduction to the Reformation by

    As the year 1500 arrived, Europe was in the midst of profound changes. The conditions, attitudes, and institutions that had characterized the Middle Ages were gradually giving way to new movements and developments. The discovery of unknown lands across the …

  • John Calvin & Geneva by

    God excels at overturning human expectations. When John Calvin left Geneva in 1538, he assumed that he would not be back. Content to study and minister in relative obscurity in Strasbourg, Calvin was unwittingly being equipped to return to Geneva …

  • Justinian & Gregory by

    Emperor Justinian I and Pope Gregory I stand out as two of the most significant figures in the centuries of transition that marked the early Middle Ages. As the vestiges of Roman culture and institutions continued to fade or be …